How to prepare a Research ProposalDirectorate of Research & Studies, Ministry of Health, Sultanate of Oman. *Address correpondence and reprint request to: Dr.
Asya Al-Riyami, Director of Research & Studies, Directorate of Research & Studies, Directorate General of Planning, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.
Journal of functional analysis - elsevier
As one authority rightly put it: ‘Health research is not a luxury, but an essential need that no nation can afford to ignore’.
Health research can and should be pursued by a broad range of people The Journal of Functional Analysis presents original research papers in all scientific disciplines in which modern functional analysis plays a basic role. Articles .
Even if they do not conduct research themselves, they need to grasp the principles of the scientific method to understand the value and limitations of science and to be able to assess and evaluate results of research before applying them. This review paper aims to highlight the essential concepts to the students and beginning researchers and sensitize and motivate the readers to access the vast literature available on research methodologies.
Most students and beginning researchers do not fully understand what a research proposal means, nor do they understand its importance. 1 A research proposal is a detailed description of a proposed study designed to investigate a given problem.
2A research proposal is intended to convince others that you have a worthwhile research project and that you have the competence and the work-plan to complete it. Broadly the research proposal must address the following questions regardless of your research area and the methodology you choose: What you plan to accomplish, why do you want to do it and how are you going to do it. 1 The aim of this article is to highlight the essential concepts and not to provide extensive details about this topic.
The elements of a research proposal are highlighted below:1. An effective title not only prick’s the readers interest, but also predisposes him/her favorably towards the proposal.
Often titles are stated in terms of a functional relationship, because such titles clearly indicate the independent and dependent variables. 1 The title may need to be revised after completion of writing of the protocol to reflect more closely the sense of the study.
Abstract: It is a brief summary of approximately 300 words.
It should include the main research question, the rationale for the study, the hypothesis (if any) and the method. Descriptions of the method may include the design, procedures, the sample and any instruments that will be used.
1 It should stand on its own, and not refer the reader to points in the project description When we write a functional analysis we don't just scribble few notes on the back of a It's the ideal basis of the request for proposal you can send to potential .
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Its purpose is to establish a framework for the research, so that readers can understand how it relates to other research. 4 It should answer the question of why the research needs to be done and what will be its relevance.
3The introduction typically begins with a statement of the research problem in precise and clear terms.
1The importance of the statement of the research problem5: The statement of the problem is the essential basis for the construction of a research proposal (research objectives, hypotheses, methodology, work plan and budget etc). It is an integral part of selecting a research topic.
It will guide and put into sharper focus the research design being considered for solving the problem. It allows the investigator to describe the problem systematically, to reflect on its importance, its priority in the country and region and to point out why the proposed research on the problem should be undertaken. It also facilitates peer review of the research proposal by the funding agencies.
Then it is necessary to provide the context and set the stage for the research question in such a way as to show its necessity and importance.
The function of the proposal - sage publications
This step is accomplished by a thorough and critical review of the literature and by personal communication with experts.
5 It helps further understanding of the problem proposed for research and may lead to refining the statement of the problem, to identify the study variables and conceptualize their relationships, and in formulation and selection of a research hypothesis A research proposal is intended to convince others that you have a worthwhile Often titles are stated in terms of a functional relationship, because such titles Descriptions of the method may include the design, procedures, the sample and Data analysis: The description should include the design of the analysis form, .
5 It ensures that you are not "re-inventing the wheel" and demonstrates your understanding of the research problem. It gives due credit to those who have laid the groundwork for your proposed research.
1 In a proposal, the literature review is generally brief and to the point. The literature selected should be pertinent and relevant.
6Against this background, you then present the rationale of the proposed study and clearly indicate why it is worth doing. Objectives: Research objectives are the goals to be achieved by conducting the research.
Research proposal - personal pages of the ceu - central european
The specific objectives relate to the specific research questions the investigator wants to answer through the proposed study and may be presented as primary and secondary objectives, for example, primary: To determine the degree of protection that is attributable to the new vaccine in a study population by comparing the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups.
5 Secondary: To study the cost-effectiveness of this programme 13 Jan 2007 - A proposal may function in at least three ways: as a means of communica- stantially from commonly accepted modes of research writing. choices in methods of data collection and analysis can be deferred until such..
Young investigators are advised to resist the temptation to put too many objectives or over-ambitious objectives that cannot be adequately achieved by the implementation of the protocol. Variables: During the planning stage, it is necessary to identify the key variables of the study and their method of measurement and unit of measurement must be clearly indicated. Four types of variables are important in research5:a.
Independent variables: variables that are manipulated or treated in a study in order to see what effect differences in them will have on those variables proposed as being dependent on them. The different synonyms for the term ‘independent variable’ which are used in literature are: cause, input, predisposing factor, risk factor, determinant, antecedent, characteristic and attribute. Dependent variables: variables in which changes are results of the level or amount of the independent variable or variables.
Develop a research proposal - sample proposals
Confounding or intervening variables: variables that should be studied because they may influence or ‘mix’ the effect of the independent variables Ph. D. Research Proposal. Iterative An important and perhaps interesting topic in nonlinear analysis and convex optimization con- For example, convex minimizations and convex-concave mini-max problems, to mention and lower semi-continuous (lsc) function f, ∂f, is a maximal monotone operator and a point..
For instance, in a study of the effect of measles (independent variable) on child mortality (dependent variable), the nutritional status of the child may play an intervening (confounding) role. Background variables: variables that are so often of relevance in investigations of groups or populations that they should be considered for possible inclusion in the study. For example sex, age, ethnic origin, education, marital status, social status etc.
The objective of research is usually to determine the effect of changes in one or more independent variables on one or more dependent variables. For example, a study may ask "Will alcohol intake (independent variable) have an effect on development of gastric ulcer (dependent variable)?"Certain variables may not be easy to identify. The characteristics that define these variables must be clearly identified for the purpose of the study.
Ph.d. research proposal 1. introduction - citeseerx
A hypothesis can be defined as a tentative prediction or explanation of the relationship between two or more variables.
In other words, the hypothesis translates the problem statement into a precise, unambiguous prediction of expected outcomes Review the following sample research proposals. fish functional diversity and functional groups · Analysis of historical retroviral contributions to the modern .
Hypotheses are not meant to be haphazard guesses, but should reflect the depth of knowledge, imagination and experience of the investigator. 5 In the process of formulating the hypotheses, all variables relevant to the study must be identified.
For example: "Health education involving active participation by mothers will produce more positive changes in child feeding than health education based on lectures". Here the independent variable is types of health education and the dependent variable is changes in child feeding.
A research question poses a relationship between two or more variables but phrases the relationship as a question; a hypothesis represents a declarative statement of the relations between two or more variables. 7For exploratory or phenomenological research, you may not have any hypothesis (please do not confuse the hypothesis with the statistical null hypothesis).
1 Questions are relevant to normative or census type research (How many of them are there? Is there a relationship between them?) Of mathematical analysis - a geometric subject, usually taught in a purely Figure 1 is due to an unknown Chinese mathematician writing circa 200 BC. The diagrammatic proof considers an individual case: apart from the function,..
Deciding whether to use questions or hypotheses depends on factors such as the purpose of the study, the nature of the design and methodology, and the audience of the research (at times even the outlook and preference of the committee members, particularly the Chair). Methodology: The method section is very important because it tells your research Committee how you plan to tackle your research problem. The guiding principle for writing the Methods section is that it should contain sufficient information for the reader to determine whether the methodology is sound.
Some even argue that a good proposal should contain sufficient details for another qualified researcher to implement the study. 1 Indicate the methodological steps you will take to answer every question or to test every hypothesis illustrated in the Questions/hypotheses section.
6 It is vital that you consult a biostatistician during the planning stage of your study,8 to resolve the methodological issues before submitting the proposal. This section should include:Research design: The selection of the research strategy is the core of research design and is probably the single most important decision the investigator has to make.
The choice of the strategy, whether descriptive, analytical, experimental, operational or a combination of these depend on a number of considerations,5 but this choice must be explained in relation to the study objectives. 3Research subjects or participants: Depending on the type of your study, the following questions should be answered3